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Additional Resources

“The Iroquois are in the throes of reinventing themselves yet again, a tradition that is itself seven times seven generations old. For the most part, these are wise and principled people, who understand that nothing is ever settled once and for all, and who have learned to live comfortably with uncertainty that understanding entails. Despite everything that has occurred through their long past and the uncertainty of the future, the Iroquois prepare the way for the seventh generation still to come” ~ Dean R. Snow – The Iroquois

A History of Iroquoian Gender Marking, Michael Cysouw: The North Iroquoian languages have a three-way gender division in the third-person prefixes. On the basis of small differences between the meanings of these genders, a history of the gender marking is proposed, building upon earlier work by Chafe (1977). This new proposal uses fewer reconstructed stages and only assumes widely attested kinds of semantic change. However, because some aspects of this proposal do not follow genetic or areal connections between the languages, independent parallel developments are proposed to account for the convergence.

Place of Articulation, Prof. Yehuda N. Falk: A sound made only with the vocal cords can be called glottal (because the space between the vocal cords is the glottis) or laryngeal (because the vocal cords are inside the larynx).

Some Mohawk Phonology, Prof. Yehuda N. Falk: Each of the following sets of data from one variety of Mohawk illustrates a different aspect of Mohawk phonology. Underlying representations are given in the first column, and near-phonetic forms in the second. The actual pronunciations of these words (shown in square brackets) involve additional phonological rules with which we are not concerned here; base your answers on the near-phonetic representations rather than the actual phonetic representations.

Iroquois Tree Myth and Symbols, Arthur C. Parker: A student of Iroquoian folklore, ceremony, or history will note the many striking instances in which sacred or symbolic trees are mentioned. One finds allusions to such trees not only in the myths and traditions that have long been known to literature, and in the speeches of Iroquois chiefs in council with the French and English colonists, but also in the more recently discovered wampum codes and in the rituals of the folk-cults.

Mohawk Spelling Dictionary, Marianne Mithun: While working with the Mohawk Language teachers on the Ahkwesahsne Reservation several years ago, one of the goals we set for ourselves was to produce relevant Mohawk language materials for use in the schools. After overcoming some major hurdles, significant progress was made after agreement was reached on a basic standardized spelling system. This Mohawk Spelling Dictionary is a result of the efforts of those teachers to build their program upon a firm foundation.

Are Second Language Learners Just as Good at Verb Morphology as First Language Learners, Alexandra Marquis and Phaedra Royle: We addressed whether children learning French as a first (L1) and multilingual children (MUL, for whom French is a second or third language) are sensitive to sub-regular verb conjugation patterns (i.e., neither default, nor idiosyncratic) (e.g., Albright, 2002; Clahsen, 1999). Some argue that children with other first languages have more difficulty learning verb conjugation patterns due to their lesser exposure to the language (e.g., Nicoladis, Palmer, & Marentette, 2007).

Mohawk stops, P. Spaelti: Carefully consider the sounds [p t k] in this data and compare with the sounds [b d g].

Mood as Verbal Definiteness in a Tenseless language: This article argues that the mood morphemes found on punctual verbs in Mohawk are to be analyzed semantically as markers of verbal definiteness. In particular, the so-called future marker is actually an indefinite morpheme indicating that the event argument of the verb undergoes Heim’s (1982) rule of Quantifier Indexing. In contrast, the seeming past marker is a definite morpheme, indicating that the event argument is immune to Quantifier Indexing. This explains many apparent peculiarities of the Mohawk verbal system, including the use of “future” as a past habitual form, the use of mood in conditionals, free relatives, and complement clauses, and the incompatibility of “past” and negation. The relationship between indefinite mood and future events, where it exists, is explicated in terms of an observation by Kamp and Reyle (1993) concerning how humans conceive of the future as different from the past.

Ontario Curriculum 2011: This resource guide is intended for teachers of Ontario Oneida, Cayuga, and Mohawk as second languages. Its purpose is to describe the language patterns that occur in these Native languages and to reinforce teachers’ knowledge of the structure and functions of the various language elements (words and word parts) that make up these patterns. It is hoped that teachers will find the guide useful in designing lessons that will help students to develop an understanding of the language patterns that characterize these Native languages and to use the languages appropriately and accurately in a variety of contexts. The guide should also help teachers evaluate materials intended to increase accuracy in the use of these languages.

Polysynthetic Language Structures and their Role in Pedagogy and Curriculum for BC Indigenous Languages. Sarah Kell: This report defines polysynthesis as it applies to BC Indigenous languages, and considers ways to build awareness of polysynthetic structures into language program content, pedagogy and curriculum, with attention to Indigenous ways of teaching and learning. Teachers of Indigenous languages can improve their practice by becoming aware of the structures of words and sentences in their language, and considering ways to convey these structures to their students.

Trends in Language 1992 External triggers, Marianne Mithun  Causes of linguistic change have traditionally been classified into two types: internal and external. Frequently cited internal causes of change include such factors as speakers’ preferences for simple and transparent systems, which can prompt learners to remodel apparently irregular or opaque paradigms. The most commonly cited external cause of change is language contact.

Like is Not Like That: A Linguistic and Social Analysis, Rebecca Solomon: A linguistic exploration of the word like provides a mirror through which we can see current societal priorities. Beginning with the historical background of the use of the word like, from Old German and Old English through modern usage, I trace how like has changed and what it has changed into.

Of Parameters and polysynthesis. Baker, Mark C.: Languages differ. There is no doubt that the morphological and syntactic structure of Mohawk, Nahuatl, and Nunggubuyu looks quite unlike that of English, French, and German. However, the true nature and extent of these differences is an important and controversial question. This is arguably one of the most important empirical questions that linguists can address, the answer having a variety of philosophical, sociological, and practical implications.

Re(e)volving Complexity Adding Intonation, Marianne Mithun: A fruitful methodology for tracing the development of grammatical complexity has been the close examination of centuries of written texts. Unfortunately, such records exist for only a small proportion of languages. Fortunately, an additional methodology is available: the comparison of synchronic structures at various stages of development, either in related languages or within a single language. Such comparisons can do more than compensate for gaps in the philological record. Written documents necessarily remain silent about a crucial feature of the evolving constructions: their prosody. Modern documentation allows us to examine prosodic patterns in spontaneous connected speech, the speech that serves as the basis for language change.

Morphological Analysis of the Story, Ne ' e Thiyoriwa Ne' Yah Nonwa Onen Teshatahsehs Ne Ohkwari', Sue-Ann McGeragle: There is a growing interest in the study of aboriginal languages. One aspect of study is the analysis of a language using various forms of text. Stories are an integral part of the cultural fabric of the Native peoples of Canada. and much can be learned about the linguistic structure of a language through such text analysis. Although the original structure of most stories was oral. there has been recently a great attempt to transfer these into written form. providing a more stable environment for linguistic analysis. There are many ways to analyze written text. but it is my intent to conduct a morphological analysis of the formal presentation of the story Ne’e Thiyoriwa Ne’ Yah Nonwa onen Teshatahsehs Ne Onkwari’ (Whythe Bear Lost Its Tail). This analysis will illustrate the morphological arrangement of written Mohawk.

The data and the examples: Comprehensiveness, accuracy, and sensitivity, Marianne Mithun: Good grammars are read by diverse audiences with a wide variety of interests. One might not write a reference grammar in exactly the same way for all potential users, but particularly in the case of under-documented and endangered languages, it is likely that whatever is produced now will be consulted for answers to questions beyond those originally anticipated.

Linguistic differences and language design, Mark C. Baker: A small number of discrete choices (‘parameters’) embedded within a system of otherwise universal principles create the extensive superficial differences between unrelated languages like English, Japanese, and Mohawk. Most current thinking about the evolution of language ignores or denies the existence of these parameters because it can see no rationale for them. That the human language faculty is organized in this way makes more sense if language is compared to a cipher or code. As such, it would have a purpose of concealing information from some at the same time as it communicates information to others.

Lexical categories Verbs, Nouns, and Adjectives, Mark C. Baker: For decades, generative linguistics has said little about the differences between verbs, nouns, and adjectives. This book seeks to fill this theoretical gap by presenting simple and substantive syntactic definitions of these three lexical categories. Mark C. Baker claims that the various superficial differences found in particular languages have a single underlying source which can be used to give better characterizations of these “parts of speech.” These new definitions are supported by data from languages from every continent, including English, Italian, Japanese, Edo, Mohawk, Chichewa, Quechua, Choctaw, Nahuatl, Mapuche, and several Austronesian and Australian languages. Baker argues for a formal, syntax-oriented, and universal approach to the parts of speech, as opposed to the functionalist, semantic, and relativist approaches that have dominated the few previous works on this subject. This book will be welcomed by researchers and students of linguistics and by related cognitive scientists of language.

The Interrogative Words of Tlingit An Informal Grammatical, Study Seth Cable: The following is intended as an informal guide to several aspects of the syntax (grammar) and semantics (meaning) of the interrogative words and phrases of Tlingit. Where possible, I have tried to keep my language relatively non-technical, and to explain facts and concepts that would be unfamiliar to a reader without a more focused background in syntax or semantics

Sentential Complementation in Mohawk, Edward Ikeda: This thesis examines the behaviour of sentential complements in Mohawk within the framework of Government and Binding Theory. Past proposals concerning the syntactic structure of sentential complements in Romance languages (and English) are explored in Mohawk. rt is claimed that Mohawk only has full CP complements and no distinct types of embedded clauses (sùch as a subjunctive or infinitival). ThIS is due to a morphological requirement (specified by the Minimal Ward Constraint) on Mohawk verbs which dictates the need for obligatory agreement morphology. Tense/aspect co-occurrence restrictions are given to show what type of CP complements a verb can take. The evidence indicates that selection of complements is due to semantic and not syntactic reasons.

On Mohawk word order, Adriana Chamorro: This thesis examines the influence of definiteness and movement on Mohawk free word order from the perspective of Government and Binding Theory. On the one hand, Mohawk data show that the relative order of NP’s with respect to the verb does not determine definiteness and that the particle ne is not a definite determiner, the language lacking this type of “pure” marker for this feature, ail of which contradicts previous claims. It is argued that pragmatic considerations will determine the interpretation of nominals. On the other hand, the evidence shows that there is no movement operation in the production of free word order in Mohawk, unlike in other scrambling languages. The evidence is accounted for by the fact that NP’s are base generated in adjunct position (Baker 1991 a) and coindexed with pra’s in argument position which are licensed by the rich agreement morphology on the verb.

Grammatical Sketches: The Mohawk Language, Marianne Mithun: Mohawk is currently spoken in three major communities in Quebec: Kahnawake, Kanehsatake, and Ahkwesahsne, as well as in Ontario and New York State. It is a member of the Iroquoian family of languages.

The Lost Atlantis and Other Ethnographic Studies, Sir Daniel Wilson, LL.D., F.R.S.E.: The legend of Atlantis, an island -continent lying in the Atlantic Ocean over against the Pillars of Hercules, which, after being long the seat of powerful empire, was engulfed in the sea, has been made the basis of many extravagant speculations and anew awakens keenest interest with the revolving centuries.

THE ELDEST MEDICINE: Red Osier Dogwood in Iroquois Folklore and Mythology, Anthony Wonderley: About a hundred years ago, an enormous corpus of Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) folklore and myth was committed to paper by both native and non-native scribes. Among the more serious efforts were collections assembled by William Beauchamp (1922), Elias Johnson (1881), Arthur Parker (1989 [1923]), Erminnie Smith (1983 [1883]), and Hope Emily Allen (1948; Wonderley 2004). Even more substantial compilations, recorded at least partly in the native languages, were assembled by Jeremiah Curtin (2001 [1922]), J. N. B. Hewitt (1918; Rudes and Crouse 1987), and Frederick Waugh (1912-1918; Randle 1953).

Ethnobotany of the Iroquois with an Emphasis on the Seneca of the Upper Allegheny, Emily Porter: The science of ethnobotany studies the way a group of people has used plants to fulfill their needs. In northwestern Pennsylvania and southwestern New York a group that used plants extensively and intimately was the Seneca Indians. Many of these uses have been recorded in detail by descendants, settlers, anthropologists, archaeologists, museum curators, and the first European traders and missionaries. Studying historical uses of plants is important for many reasons. For example, it gives one deeper insight into exactly what has been lost in the name of progress and what stands to be regained.

Additional Qualification Course Guideline Teaching Mohawk, Teachers’ Qualifications Regulation: “You are what you speak” Chief Arnie General, Six Nations Polytechnic 28 Feb. – 1 Mar. 2011 1. Tewatahsawahkhwa (Introduction) Successful completion of the course developed from this guideline enables teachers to receive the Additional Qualification: Teaching Mohawk (Enhsherihónnien Kanien’kéha).

The Handbook of Linguistics The Handbook of Linguistics, Edited by: Mark Aronoff And Janie Rees-Miller: For over a century, linguists have been trying to explain linguistics to other people who they believe should be interested in their subject matter. After all, everyone speaks at least one language and most people have fairly strong views about their own language. The most distinguished scholars in every generation have written general books about language and linguistics targeted at educated laypeople and at scholars in adjacent disciplines, and some of these books have become classics, at least among linguists.

Linguistic Analysis of Discourse, Marianne Mithun: Language has traditionally been understood as a hierarchical system of systems: phonology, morphology, syntax, etc. A tenet of much of linguistic theory, particularly the American Structuralist and Generative approaches that arose during the twentieth century, was that intellectual rigor depended on a strict separation of these levels as autonomous, self-contained domains. For practical reasons, work began at the smaller, more concrete levels. Phonology was the study of the patterning of sounds; morphology how morphemes are combined to form words; syntax how words are combined to form sentences. Within mainstream theory in America, the focus had not yet moved to discourse, presumably the study of how sentences are combined to form texts, that is, structure beyond the sentence.
2009 Syntax and lexicon Compounding, Marianne Mithun: Because Mohawk has such elaborate morphology, words are usually classified according to their internal morphological structure. Words fall into three clear morphological types: particles, nouns, and verbs

Infants Attention to Affixes, Lynn Santelmann and Peter W. Jusczyk: One of the major language acquisition tasks that infants must accomplish is the development of a lexicon. Developing of the lexicon is a complex task that involves many different components of language: segmenting a group of sounds from fluent speech, mapping this arbitrary set of sounds with meaning, categorizing the word in terms of syntactic roles and breaking morphologically complex words into stems and affixes.

MOBILE APPS AND INDIGENOUS LANGUAGE LEARNING, Winoka Rose Begay: This study focuses on the theme of technology-based Indigenous language revitalization and maintenance efforts by looking at new developments in mobile technology and how they are used within Indigenous communities for language learning and teaching.

Reflexives in Mohawk, Nancy Bonvillain: This paper presents an analysis of the meanings and uses of two reflexive morphemes in the Mohawk language. Reflexive “atat” is shown to have both reflexive and reciprocal meanings. It is also realized in kinship terms and in the transitive pronominal prefix “yutat.” Semi-reflexive “at” has some reflexive functions, and can mark middle voice and detransitivized states or processes. Additional uses of “at” are also examined. The paper concludes with a discussion of comparative data on reflexives in other Iroquoian languages.

Iroquois Book of Rites, Horatio Hale: The aboriginal composition now presented to the public has some peculiar claims on the attention of scholars. As a record, if we accept the chronology of its custodians,—which there is no reason to question,—it carries back the authentic history of Northern America to a date anterior by fifty years to the arrival of Columbus. Further than this, the plain and credible tradition of the Iroquois, confirmed by much other evidence, links them with the still earlier Alligewi, or “Moundbuilders,” as conquerors with the conquered. Thus the annals of this portion of the continent need no longer begin with the landing of the first colonists, but can go back, like those of Mexico, Yucatan and Peru, to a storied past of singular interest.

When Speakers Write, Marianne Mithun: Proceedings of the Eleventh Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistic Society. Mary Niepokuj, Deborah Feder, Vassiliki Nikiforidou, and Mary Van Clay, eds. Berkeley: University of California. 259-272.

On Agreement and its Relationship to Case - Some Generative Ideas and Results, Mark C Parker: Some prominent recent literature has challenged the notion of language universals and a universal grammar (Bickel 2007; Evans and Levinson 2009; Dunn, Greenhill et al. 2011). This literature claims that, as we collect more data from a wider range of languages and use it to construct large typological databases, we find that there are counterexamples to essentially every substantive and interesting universal property of languages that has been proposed. Indeed, we find (they say) that language seems to vary without clearly defined limits, subject primarily to cultural and historical factors.

Iroquois Medical Botany, James W Herrick: This is the first book to provide a guide to understanding the use of herbal medicines in traditional Iroquois culture. The worldview of the Iroquois League or Confederacy – the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca, and Tuscarora nations – is based on a strong cosmological belief system. This is evident, especially in their medical practices, which connect man to nature and the powerful forces in the supernatural realm. This book relates Iroquois cosmology to cultural themes by showing the inherent spiritual power of plants and how the Iroquois traditionally have used and continue to use plants as remedies.

Being Special, Marianne Mithun: Skilled first-language speakers are often unaware of the astounding intricacies of their languages, especially if the languages do not have long literary traditions. The value accorded such languages by both those within the community and those outside, especially when the language is spoken primarily by small numbers of elderly people, may be more a reflection of attitudes toward the culture than toward the language itself. But attitudes can also flow in the opposite direction. A language can become a cornerstone of pride in heritage, particularly once it becomes clear that it is not only as good as an encroaching majority language, but also special.

A Grammar of Akwesasne Mohawk, Nancy Bonvillain: The work is a grammer of Mohawk, as spoken at the Akwesasne (St. Regis) Reserve. The Reserve is located on southern Canada in the province of Ontario and Quebec and in norther New York State, Franklin County… the work includes ethnographic information, especially as it relates to language use. In this context, the domain of kinship terminology is discussed, both in terms of structure and usage.

Kanienkeha Okarashona Mohawk Stories, Marianne Williams: The Mohawk people, like any other Native American tribal groups, have placed a high priority on the retention of the Mohawk Language by thier children. This is evidenced by the schools that Mohawk children attend, both in Canada and in the United States. Kanien’keha’ Okara’shon:’a (Mohawk stories)is a welcome addition the limited resources available to the Mohawk language teachers at this time. The authors are to be commended for the effort put into recording this portion of a rich cultural heritage. This pioneer work in writing the Mohawk language will benefit many of our people for years to come.

Noun incorporation and the Mohawk lexicon Robert P Malouf: Mohawk like many North American languages seems to do in its morphology what more familiar languages do in their syntax When faced with such a language the linguist is forced to reconsider some basic notions Do we ignore the apparent parallels between syntactic and morphological processes and continue to treat them dierently or do we push syntax down below the word level What is the division of labor between the lexical and syntactic components of the grammar One

The Mohawk Indians of North America, Nancy Bonvillain: American Indians are an integral part of our nation’s life and history. Yet most Americans think of their Indian neighbors as stereotypes; they are woefully uninformed about them as fellow humans.

A Teaching Grammar - Preliminary Version, Nora Deering and Halga Harries-Delisle: This teaching grammar is designed  to be used with adult students. Although primarily conceived for classroom use, it could be used by students learning on thier own. A section on reading and writing Mohawk precedes the twenty lessons, each of which had basically the same format: (1) conversation, (2) introduction to the systematic variations of the new material, (3) conversation, (4) phrases to be used in class, (5) vocabulary, (6) exercises, and (7) notes to the student, including grammatical and cultural information to be used for reference purposes.

Grammaticalization and Polysynthesis, Marianne Mithun: Like many other languages in North America, those in the Iroquoian family are highly headmarking and polysynthetic. Nominal morphology is generally quite simple, but verbal morphology is elaborate, serving many functions expressed syntactically in other languages.

Iroquoian Vowels, Blair A Rudes: The paucity of published Proto-Iroquoian reconstrudctions results, in par, from the difficulties associated with the reconstruction of the vowel system. The basic vowel correspondence among the Iroquoian languages – that is, those corrospondances that account for the majority of cognate sets – have been known for decades. However, no previous reconstruction of the full Proto-Iroquoian vowel system has appeared in print.

Mohawk Color Terms, Jack a Frisch: The anthropological literatire abound with descritpions of the color terminologoes for many of the world’s languages. The effort of these researches have been utilized to lend support to he notion of linguistic relativity.

Stage and Individual Level Agreement in Mohawk Part 1, Emerson loustau: Mohawk has two distinct paradigms of subject agreement for intransitive verbs. These are generally thought to be thematically determined, despite the presence of significant counterexamples. This paper will argue against a thematic analysis, as well as several other superficially plausible explanations, and instead propose that the distribution of the two forms of agreement correlate with stage and individual level predicates. The case will be made that there is substantial evidence against all of the leading alternative analyses, and that there is preliminary evidence in favor of a stage vs. individual-level analysis.

Stage and Individual Level Agreement in Mohawk Part 2, Emerson loustau: The Mohawk agreement paradigm shows a split within intransitives, casually refered to as ‘subjective’ and ‘objective’ agreement (Deering and Harries-Delisle, 2007; Baker, 1996). Agreement prefixes are shown in bold face type.

The Non-Universality of Obliques, Marianne Mithun: Terminological and definitional variability Classifications of arguments or noun phrases or participants or referents core/oblique, nuclear/peripheral, direct/oblique, primary/secondary, core/margin, nuclear/satellite, arguments/adjuncts, etc. Domain of the distinction: morphological and/or syntactic Languages vary in the robustness of such a formal distinction. They also vary in the inventories of categories in each group. Can we assume that the distinction itself is a universal?

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